Hydraulic fluid is the energy transfer medium in all hydraulic systems. However, the job of hydraulic fluid goes beyond simple transmission of power. Although transmitting hydraulic energy is the core purpose of hydraulic fluid, it is useful in four secondary functions—heat transfer, contamination removal, sealing, and lubrication.
Hydraulic machines produce a lot of excess heat in normal operation, often caused by inefficiencies of the components themselves, like pumps and motors. Without a way to carry heat away from these components, they could easily overheat with resulting damage of seals and internal components, especially as a result of low local viscosity. As oil returns to the reservoir, it often passes through a cooler to help maintain optimal temperature range before it is pumped back out to the system. Conversely, hydraulic fluid can carry heat into a system during cold starts, when needed.
Hydraulic systems like the ones mentioned above will work most efficiently if the hydraulic fluid used has zero compressibility.
The original hydraulics fluid, dating back to the time of ancient Egypt, was water. Beginning in the 1920s, mineral oil began to be used more than water as a base stock due to its inherent lubrication properties and ability to be used at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Today most hydraulic fluids are based on mineral oil base stocks.
Bulldozers, excavators, cranes, tractors, and lifts, use hydraulic systems to create enough force to move materials and equipment. Many of these systems employ hydraulic cylinders that transfer power through the hydraulic oil between cylinders, often with the assistance of motors. When high-pressure, heavy load conditions are present, a fluid with a higher viscosity grade and anti-wear additives work the best. For plows and applications that operate in extremely cold temperatures, anti-freeze additives are also considered.
Circulating Oil Systems provide continuous flow of liquid to bearings, gearboxes, and blowers. They circulate various liquids such as oils, synthetic lubricants, ethylene glycol, and jet fuel. Circulating Oil Systems are commonly used for heavily loaded bearings operating at high speeds and temperatures.
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